He organized an expedition to Fergana under supervision of his uncle Sheikh Omer’s son Ahmad in the spring of 1414. During his ruling at Samarkand, Ulugh Beg was mainly interested in hunting, entertainment and conversations with scholars, but could not establish good relations with sheikhs, mullahs and dervishes. During this period, Ali bin Muhammed (Ali Kuşçu), who was one of the palace’s falconer, became his friend. With the expedition against Mongols in 1425, he approached the Lake Issyk. He defeated the Mongols and turned back to Samarkand with a significant amount of booty.
New astronomy instruments were made and older ones were improved during the time of Ulugh Beg. While it was possible to perform 43 operations with an astrolabe in the 9th and 10th centuries, more than 1000 operations became possible with the astrolabe of 40-meter diameter developed during his time.